Posted in Gardening & Backyard Farming, Sustainable Homes and Living

LED grow lights vs Fluorescents

We have been growing microgreens for a few years now and are in to our 3rd growing season for our Friends & Family Microgreens Club.  We have been using T5 and T8* Fluorescent lights since the beginning, but the old T8’s are only used in a pinch. Seeing as we have changed pretty well all of our home lights to LED’s now, we thought we better start looking into changing out the lighting we use to grow our microgreens as well.

I belong to a microgreen growers group on Facebook and this question comes up over and over again. What type of lighting should I use for growing microgreens? I’m sure the group admins pull their hair out every time it gets asked…

As with anything, there are many different answers to this, based on several parameters. What is the budget? What level of grower are you – Personal use only, Growing Club, Start-up Entrepreneur, Large-scale Commercial Grower or something in-between.

As Growing Club members, we need to keep our budget to a minimum, as we are not a profit centre. Because of this, we started looking at LED tape / strip lights, which come in a roll and run on low-voltage. There are mixed reviews on these lights, with concerns of safety, quality and growth of plants on one side and loving the low power consumption and ease of setting up on the other.

Because of this we popped into our local LED lighting shop to see what they might offer. Canadian Wholesale Lighting supplied us with 2 different versions of LED grow lights: The tape or strip light I was thinking of, along with a package of 5 – T5 LED Tube fixtures.

What did we compare?

  • Ease of use
  • Energy use
  • Quality of Microgreens, including:
    • Taste
    • Visual – Colour / Growth / Volume

Ease of use / Energy use

The TopLED Strip Light comes with cord / transformer and mounting brackets, but has no in-line switch. This means you would have to use a power bar as switch, as we have done, but if not using that growing shelf one growing cycle,  you have to unplug the light. Not a big deal, but a little less convenient.

As we were just doing a test, we used cable ties to hold it on to wood hangers. This will have reduced the efficiency a bit, as strip curled around each end. In proper install, we would cut to length and attach with cord connectors. Light is a Red / Blue at 4 – 1 ratio. 1 – LED Strip light tested at 38 watts


TopLED Strip Light

The T5 LED Series Tube fixtures are boxed as a set of five 280mm x 10mm LED strip lights built in to reflective tubes, with a power cord / transformer / switch, connection cords which allow for one power cord to run a series of fixtures and brackets. Very easy set-up. The light is very hard on eyes, so we mounted them on lowest grow shelf. If you were using this style in larger install, I would recommend wearing UV eye protection. 5 – LED T5 Tubes tested at 27 watts


T5 LED Series Tube fixtures


Our existing 60cm / 2 ft. Sun Blaster T5 Fluorescent lights are in their 3rd season. They also came with power-cord / switch,  built-in ballast, connection cords which allow for one power cord to run a series of fixtures and brackets. Tubes can be replaced as needed.  4 – T5 Fluorescents tested at 84 watts total.


T5 Fluorescent Lights

Quality of Microgreens

Now to the part you have probably been waiting for. How did the microgreens grow under the 3 different lights?

We grew three trays of each, making sure they were all given the exact same conditions. All were grown in 10 x 20 trays (standard greenhouse tray size), using certified organic ProMix container mix.

The grow room was kept at a 20 C / 70 F temperature (we keep it cooler then some growers as we work on a 2 week cycle).  We grew Sunflowers and a Brassica mix. All trays were put under light on day 5, which includes a day for Sunflowers to be soaked before planting.

During the first cycle, the approximate height from top of soil to bottom of lights were as follows.

  • LED Strip – 27 cm / 10.5 inches
  • LED Tube – 24 cm / 9.5 inches
  • T5 Fluorescent – 22 cm / 8.5 inches (our standard height for these)

During the second cycle, we lowered the LED’s hoping to get better results

  • LED Strip – 18 cm / 7 inches
  • LED Tube – 14 cm / 5.5 inches
  • T5 Fluorescent – 22 cm / 8.5 inches

How did they grow?

You will see below, that there is a considerable difference in volume and density of the crops. The two types of LED lights had quite different success with each variety of Microgreens, while the T5 Fluorescents remained more consistent.

Sunflowers

Sunflowers        T5 Fluorescents          LED Strip / Tape Light         LED T5 Tubes

Sunflowers        T5 Fluorescents          LED Strip / Tape Light         LED T5 Tubes

Brassica Mix


Brassica Mix       T5 Fluorescents          LED Strip / Tape Light         LED T5 Tubes

Brassica Mix        T5 Fluorescents          LED Strip / Tape Light         LED T5 Tubes

Taste Test

We did a taste test at end of second cycle. A very experienced tasting team, which included two family members and myself 😉 We did a simple 1st, 2nd & 3rd rating system. The results are as follows…

Sunflowers

  1. LED Strip light – Nice taste, good water content
  2. T5 Fluorescents – Not a lot of difference to above, just a hair behind
  3. LED T5 Tubes – Very bitter. We used in a smoothie.

Brassica Mix

  1. LED T5 Tubes – Nice taste, good water content
  2. T5 Fluorescents – Not a lot of difference to above, just a hair behind
  3. LED Strip – Limp. No appeal

Final Conclusion

It seems that the different Microgreen varieties fared differently with the different lights. All I can really say is that you will have to try out which Microgreens grow well under your lighting. The big difference for most of us will be the cost to buy and cost to run.

The LED Stip lights should be the least costly to buy, as you can easily take one 5m / 16.4 ft strip and cover a 4 ft. shelf. The LED T5 Tubes used the least amount of power, but I don’t really think that the five tube package covered all the plants on 4 foot shelf that well.

The T5 Fluorescents used considerably more wattage, but are quite consistent in growing a good crop. If you are growing a few trays for yourself, the overall cost wouldn’t be that much. If growing on a larger scale, that cost would add up quickly.

We definitely would need more time to really make a proper conclusion. 

*We didn’t use one of our old 4ft T8 Fluorescents as part of this test, but just for fun, its power was rated at 54 watts for a two tube fixture.

Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

Owen is back in the hospital

Update from NHG – Sadly, we have heard that Owen passed away. Owen left us quietly. At about 2:00 am (in Thailand), the doctor had given the highest blood pressure medication but no response. He will be greatly missed by many people. Our readers have enjoyed his posts and followed his work for many years.

Two days ago I got the following email from Owen’s family in Thailand: Subject: Symptoms of Owen are worried. He’s been in the hospital for 3 days now because he’s been eating less about a week. Have just a little fruit. We try to find the food that he likes. But he can only chew and spit out. The body is very weak. Now he’s wearing his respirator again, and he can not speak. We and the medical team are watching closely. Thanks for all the encouragement from everyone. We appreciate the help. We will fight together for Owen.

Then, this morning was this:  Owen’s heart stops. The doctor made a six-minute heart pump until he regained consciousness. After a while I read all the prayers that people sent to Owen. He nodded and blinked.

I send my blessings for Owen.

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Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

Migrating Culture

MIGRATING CULTURE is an African/American design campaign creatively established in 2006 with key projects in Ghana, West Africa. The original concept  was to organize a consortium of artisans that would enable a cultural exchange both locally (Ghana) and worldwide.

Its founder, Brandon Rogers, is based in Ghana and has a strong background in architectural design and interest in the construction industry. Brandon has collaborated with local architecture firms, non-profit organizations, and numerous local builders and professionals throughout a number of rural villages. With the knowledge and perspective gained from both his research and in-field experiences, Brandon began to promote sustainable/ green building techniques as alternative solutions to the traditional methods.

Brandon has focused on earthbag building as a technique which the average rural family could utilize to build stronger, more efficient homes. To date Brandon and the diverse team of tradesmen and youth apprentices have constructed three projects, which display the possibilities of the earth bag wall system and other green methods.

If you visit their website you can see many examples of the fine building projects they have completed. I applaud their efforts and the results.

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Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

Dan Phillips turns backyard scraps into whimsical Texan houses

Dan Phillips’ company, Phoenix Commotion, turns trash into homes, employs “unskilled” workers and creates shelter for low-income families. Phillips is trying to show that there are many good reasons to reuse construction waste and provide a whimsical alternative to mobile homes or other affordable housing. With no formal training in architecture or construction, Phillips is a self-taught carpenter, plumber and electrician, but he has no problem complying with local building codes. This video visits his plumbed-and-wired treehouse home built in an artist’s compound, his “bone house” (made from donations from the “bone yards” of local ranchers) and his latest project, a home shaped like a cowboy boot.

You can also see TEDx talk that he did on this post.

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Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

Microgreen Lighting test

Watch for the results of our lighting test, which will come out in about a week! Over the last month, we have been testing out 2 types of LED grow lights. We will be comparing them to each other and to our existing T5 Fluorescents. Thank you to Canadian Wholesale Lighting for asking us to try these out!

T5 Fluorescents
LED plant growing strip light (Tape Light)
LED 1 foot T5 lights
Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

Homesteading Family Living Off-Grid in a Spectacular Earthship

This inspiring off-grid homesteading family lives in a renovated stone earthship. They grow their own food, collect rainwater, use solar power, have composting toilets, and they have a pond that filters their grey water. On top of living an eco friendly lifestyle, they dedicate their work to important projects like urban gardening and promoting industrial hemp as “Hempbassadors.”

The post Homesteading Family Living Off-Grid in a Spectacular Earthship appeared first on Natural Building Blog.

Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

The Lost Art of Pantries and Root Cellars

In this age of electric refrigeration, the use of cool storage pantries and root cellars has all but faded into oblivion. This is unfortunate, since they have great value for many reasons. There is only so much that can be put into a refrigerator, and the bigger the fridge, the more it costs to keep it cool. With pantries and root cellars, the storage potential is much greater and the cool atmosphere is free and non-polluting.

There is a distinction between a root cellar and a cool pantry: humidity. A true root cellar should be kept fairly moist in order to best preserve the crops that are stored there, whereas a pantry needs to be much dryer to avoid spoilage. Root cellars are limited in their use, but a pantry can store practically anything.

Before the days of refrigeration, root cellars and ice boxes were about the only way to keep certain crops fresh after harvest. Root cellars were usually separate from the house and dug into the ground to take advantage of the cool, stable temperature beneath the surface.

Depending on how often the produce needs to be accessed, there are differing strategies for creating the space. The simplest concept is to just bury a garbage can in the ground, with the lid protruding above, then digging a trench around the can so that straw can be thrown on top and then plastic sheeting placed over it all with rocks to hold it down. Damp burlap or sand can be enclosed with the produce to maintain the proper humidity. Obviously it takes some work to get at the produce, but this method will store some items, especially over the winter.

A more elaborate and convenient root cellar will have a door for entry, sometimes placed flat on the ground or at an angle, but probably the best arrangement is with a vertical, insulated door. If the root cellar itself is completely underground (which it really needs to be to take advantage of the cool earth), then there would be steps that descend to the door, or a covered entrance with steps after the door. Another possibility is digging into a hillside. Depending on the stability of the soil, the sides of the excavation might either be left unfinished or lined with materials to create a retaining wall. The roof needs to be supported by some fairly massive timbers to support up to two feet of dirt placed on top. Care should be taken to avoid contact between the dirt and any wood used. Sheets of heavy polyethylene can be used to good advantage to protect the wood. Usually if the floor is left as natural earth, or just has a layer of gravel on it, the humidity will remain high enough to store most produce.

It is a good idea to provide some ventilation, with a high outlet vent and a low inlet vent. These could be closed during really cold spells to assure that nothing freezes, but having some air movement keeps the space fresh and allows off-gassing of the produce to occur without harm. Apples will give off ethylene gas which can cause potatoes to sprout prematurely and make carrots go bitter, so store the apples near the outlet vent.

If you keep a thermometer/humidity gauge in the root cellar you can monitor the space for optimal conditions, and make adjustments as needed for what you are storing. Vegetables that like to be cold and very moist (32-40 degrees F., 90-95% humidity) include: carrots, beets, celery, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, rutabagas, turnips, collards, broccoli and Jerusalem artichokes. Produce that likes to be kept cold and fairly moist (32-40 degrees F., 80-90% humidity) include: potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, apples, grapes, oranges, pears and grapefruit. Produce that likes to be kept cool and fairly moist (40-45 degrees F., 85-90% humidity) include: cucumbers, sweet peppers, cantaloupe, watermelon, eggplant and ripe tomatoes. Vegetables that prefer cool and dry conditions (35-40 degrees F., 60-70% humidity) include garlic and onions. Produce that likes to be stored in fairly warm, dry conditions (50-60 degrees F., 60-70% humidity) include: dry hot peppers, pumpkins, winter squash, sweet potatoes and green tomatoes.

Unless you have an abundance of the produce mentioned above, a root cellar may not be so useful for you. On the other hand, a cool pantry would be useful for almost anybody. We built one as an extension of our house and would feel deprived without it. We decided to make a rather large one (about 100 square feet), and I’m really glad we did. This allows us to keep lots of staples on hand, which diminishes our need to make that trip out to stock up on food, and it’s a great feeling to know that we could survive all manner of problems and help our neighbors as well.

Our pantry is situated right next to our kitchen, which makes it especially useful. Most food items will last much longer if kept cool and dry, so we have grains, beans, nuts, dried produce, dry milk, canned goods, pet food, wine, etc., much of it in 5-gallon containers. There is lots of room in there to store empty bottles and miscellaneous kitchen wares that we don’t need frequently. We don’t have a separate root cellar, so we also store fruit, potatoes, garlic and onions, yams and squash in there. These items definitely last much longer than they would at room temperature in our kitchen.

This pantry is dug about five feet into the ground on the north side of our house. It is semi-circular in shape, with sloping walls made of polypropylene bags filled with sand at the lower level and crushed volcanic rock above that. The conical roof is partially supported with a pole framework because the pitch is too shallow for the bags to be self-supporting. The whole thing is just covered with several layers of plastic sheeting and then covered entirely with dirt. There is an inlet air vent on one side and an outlet vent at the very top. The floor is adobe poured over plastic sheeting, so the atmosphere is fairly dry. After quite a few afternoon rains, the humidity in there is only 64%. It has never leaked. The temperature ranges from a low of about 36 degrees F. (in the dead of winter) to a high of about 65 degrees F. in the heat of the summer. If it were dug deeper into the ground this spread would be less.

Another interesting approach to building a pantry is to bury a section of a large culvert pipe. One man took an eight feet diameter by fifty feet long culvert, welded the ends closed, and created a hatch for entry. The air vents and entry were camouflaged, so he had a secret hideaway/storage unit. This same concept could provide a completely buried pantry that is accessible from inside a house.

Many house designs would not easily accommodate a buried pantry. Another strategy for keeping a room cool is to locate it on the north side of the house, and have substantial air vents that are opened only at night during the warmer seasons. This requires a little more attention to maintain a cool temperature, but makes it possible to retrofit an existing house with a nice cool pantry. The room should be well insulated to keep it from warming up too much during the day.

The idea of having a large cool storage room next to the kitchen makes so much sense to me that I think all houses should be designed this way. This facility uses no energy to keep things cool and promotes a lifestyle of fewer miles driven, along with a feeling of abundance and security. What a winning combination!

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Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

Natural Building and a New Sense of the Earth


This nearly one hour video program features some of the luminaries of the natural building movement and is well worth watching. In addition to the many interviews are some luscious images of the process and result of fine natural craftsmanship.

Meet Linda Smiley and Ianto Evans who pioneered cob building in the U.S. and who now run the North American School of Natural Building in Coquille, Oregon where they and their students have used natural building methods to create a little village. Coenraad and Courtney Rogmans took a piece of undeveloped land, built straw bale and cob buildings complete with solar electricity and a water catchment system, and now teach natural building workshops. Taylor Starr at White Oak Farm, an organic farm and educational center, is putting the final touches on a striking timber-framed straw bale and cob community center. Brendan Flanagan, with his family and friends, turned a remote wooded hillside into a snug community of homes and gardens. Rob Bolman, an advocate of incorporating natural building techniques into mainstream building practices, created an ecovillage in the middle of Eugene, Oregon, and speaks passionately about the link between natural building and social justice. Meka Bunch, after only a week-long workshop, built his own elegant cob cottage and now works sharing natural building with people abroad. And Kiko Denzer, a sculptor and cob builder, and his wife Hannah, an organic gardener and baker, transformed a dilapidated outbuilding in the country into a cozy cob home surrounded by beautiful gardens.

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Posted in Sustainable Homes and Living

The Bizarre Houseboats of Brittan

In West Sussex, England, a small community has formed around a colony of bizarre houseboats. Using spare parts from old buses, missiles and planes, each boat has its own unique look and feel. Among the residents of the community is Hamish McKenzie. An imaginative houseboat renovator, he’s incorporated his wacky and creative personality to create a truly spectacular home. From a microwave as a mailbox to the nose of a jumbo jet as a window, Hamish infuses glorious new life into discarded objects.

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